Alzheimer’s Disease Signs, Symptoms and Remedies

Alzheimer’s disease is a devastating condition that affects millions of people worldwide. The disease is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and memory loss.

This review article provides an overview of the signs, symptoms  and remedies of Alzheimer’s disease. Moreover we discussed the current research on Alzheimer’s disease, including genetic risk factors, neuroimaging techniques, biomarkers, and therapeutic interventions.

What is Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the brain, causing cognitive decline and memory loss. It is the most common cause of dementia among older adults. The disease is named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer, who first described the disease in 1906. Currently, there is no direct cure for Alzheimer’s disease, but there are treatments available that can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Signs and Symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease

The early signs of Alzheimer’s disease are often subtle and may be mistaken for normal aging or stress. As the disease progresses, however, symptoms become more noticeable and debilitating. Some common signs and symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease include:

  1. Memory Loss – forgetting recently learned information, forgetting important dates or events, and relying more heavily on memory aids.
  2. Difficulty Completing Familiar Tasks – having trouble with tasks that are familiar, such as preparing a meal, using a tool, or driving to a familiar location. It has an effect on the brain and the nervous system.
  3. Confusion – getting lost in familiar places, losing track of the date or time, or having trouble understanding conversations.
  4. Language Problems – having difficulty finding the right words to express thoughts or engage in conversation.
  5. Personality Changes – experiencing mood swings, becoming more irritable or anxious, and losing interest in activities that were once enjoyable.
  6. Poor Judgment – making poor decisions, such as giving away large sums of money, or falling for scams.
  7. Misplacing Things – putting items in unusual places, such as putting car keys in the refrigerator.
  8. Withdrawal from Work or Social Activities – losing interest in work or social activities, and becoming more isolated.

Remedies for Alzheimer’s Disease

While there is currently no cure for Alzheimer’s disease, there are several remedies available that can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those with the disease. Some of these remedies include medications, lifestyle changes, cognitive therapy, and support groups.

Medications are available that can help slow the progression of Alzheimer’s disease and improve cognitive function. Lifestyle changes, such as adopting a healthy diet, regular exercise, and social engagement, can also improve overall health and well-being.

Cognitive therapy, such as memory training and problem-solving exercises, can help improve cognitive function and slow the progression of the disease. Support groups can also help individuals with Alzheimer’s disease and their caregivers cope with the challenges of the disease and provide a sense of community.

Current research on Alzheimer’s disease

Genetic Risk Factors

Genetic factors play a significant role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Mutations in three genes, amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2), have been identified as causes of early-onset familial Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, a variant of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, APOE ε4, is associated with an increased risk of developing late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Recent research has identified several additional genetic risk factors, including rare variants of TREM2, PLCG2, and ABI3.

Neuroimaging Techniques

Neuroimaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), can be used to visualize brain structure and function and detect changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease. For example, amyloid PET imaging can detect the presence of amyloid plaques in the brain, which are a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. MRI can be used to measure hippocampal volume, which is reduced in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease.


Biomarkers, such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid beta and tau proteins, can be used to detect early changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Recent research has shown that CSF biomarkers can predict the development of Alzheimer’s disease up to 20 years before symptoms appear. In addition, blood-based biomarkers are being developed that may be less invasive and more widely available than CSF biomarkers.

Therapeutic Interventions

Several therapeutic interventions are being developed for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. These interventions include medications that target the underlying pathology of the disease, such as beta-amyloid and tau protein aggregation, as well as lifestyle interventions, such as diet and exercise. Recent research has also explored the potential of non-pharmacological interventions, such as cognitive training and social engagement, in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.


Alzheimer’s disease is a devastating condition that affects millions of people worldwide. While there is currently no cure for the disease, significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding the underlying causes of Alzheimer’s disease and developing new treatments. Advances in genetic research, neuroimaging techniques, biomarker development, and therapeutic interventions have provided new insights into the disease and offer hope for future treatments. Continued research into Alzheimer’s disease is essential to improve our understanding of the disease and develop new treatments that can improve the lives of those affected by the disease.


Ballard, C., & Gauthier, S. (2020). Alzheimer’s disease: New treatments on the horizon. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 107(2), 228-233.

Alzheimer’s Association. (2021). What is Alzheimer’s?

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